Comparative analysis of microsatellite DNA polymorphism in landraces and cultivars of rice
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Comparative analysis of microsatellite DNA polymorphism in landraces and cultivars of rice Yang, G. P., M. A. Saghai Maroof, C. G. Xu, Q. Zhang and R. M. Biyashev. 1994. Mol. Gen. Genet. 245:187-194. ABSTRACT Genetic polymorphisms of ten microsatellite DNA loci were examined among 238 accessions of landraces and cultivars that represent a significant portion of the distribution range for both indica and japonica groups of cultivated rice. In all, 93 alleles were identified with these ten markers. The number of alleles varied from a low of 3 or 4 at each of four loci, to an intermediate value of 9-14 at five loci, and to an extra-ordinarily high 25 at one locus. The numbers of alleles per locus are much larger than those detected using other types of markers. The number of alleles detected at a locus is significantly correlated with the number of simple sequence repeats in the targeted microsatellite DNA. Indica rice has about 14% more alleles than japonica rice, and such allele number differences are more pronounced in landraces than in cultivars. The indica-japonica differentiation component accounted for about 10% of the diversity in the total sample, and twice as much differentiation was detected in cultivars as in landraces. About two-thirds as many alleles were observed in cultivars as in landraces; another two-thirds of the alleles in the cultivar group were found in modern elite cultivars or parents of hybrid rice. The majority of the simple sequence repeat (SSR) alleles that were present in high or intermediate frequencies in landraces ultimately survived into modern elite cultivars and hybrids. The greater resolving power and the efficient production of massive amounts of SSR data may be particularly useful for germplasm assessment and evolutionary studies of crop plants. Key words genetic diversity, germplasm, indica-japonica differentiation, Oryza sativa, simple sequence repeat (SSR).