Analysis of barley and rice genomes by comparative RFLP linkage mapping
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Analysis of barley and rice genomes by comparative RFLP linkage mapping Saghai Maroof, M. A., G. P. Yang, R. Biyashev, P. J. Maughan and Q. Zhang. 1996. Theor. Appl. Genet. 92:541-551. ABSTRACT Comparative genetic mapping of rice and barley, both major crop species with extensive genetic resources, offers the possibility of uniting two well-established and characterized genetic systems. In the present study, we screened 229 molecular markers and utilized 110 polymorphic orthologous loci to construct comparative maps of the rice and barley genomes. While extensive chromosomal translocations, differentiate the rice and barley genomes, several syntenous chromosomes arms appear to share nearly identical gene content and gene order. Seventeen regions of conserved organization were detected, spanning 287 cM (24%) and 321 cM (31%) of the rice and barley genomes, respectively. The results also indicate that most (72%) of the single-copy sequences in barley are also single copy in rice, suggesting that the large barley genome arose by unequal crossing over and amplification of repetitive DNA sequences and not by the duplication of single-copy sequences. Combining these results with those previously reported for comparative analyses of rice and wheat identified nine putatively syntenous chromosomes among barley, wheat and rice. The high degree of gene-order conservation as detected by comparative mapping has astonishing implications for interpreting genetic information among species and for elucidating chromosome evolution and speciation. Key words synteny, orthologous evolution, genetic maps, triticeae.